Postal History Of The Colorado Territory

Submitted By: David New | WCS #1433

///Postal History Of The Colorado Territory
Postal History Of The Colorado Territory 2017-09-25T15:56:05+00:00

Postal History Of The Colorado Territory Exhibit

Postal History Of The Colorado Territory

Postal History Of The Colorado Territory

Postal History Of The Colorado Territory

Postal History Of The Colorado Territory

The vast area of the United States known as the Unorganized Territory was acquired at the time of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. In the years ahead it was divided into territories. The mountain region located in the western part of the Kansas Territory was noted for a major gold discovery in 1858, and contributed much to the development of the west.

Kansas Territory, Nebraska Territory, New Mexico Territory, Utah Territory

Map outlines three major regions

The map outlines three major regions leaving the southern border area of New Mexico Territory to be surveyed at a later date. The main settlements in the western Kansas Territory were Auraria, Denver City, Montana City and St. Charles. Denver City on the east side of the Platte River was an ideal town site, and a
merger with Auraria in March 1861 combined the two cities.

Denver City became the major supply center for miners and prospectors going west to the mining areas of Black Hawk, Gold Dirt, Idaho, Mountain City, Hamilton, and Tarryall. The placer gold discoveries made in late 1858 through 1860 were among the richest deposits attracting gold seekers.

Two other areas to be explored were Boulder district in the Nebraska Territory a short distance north of the Kansas Territory border and just inside Nebraska Territory. Then further west over the Continental Divide in the Utah Territory a major discovery was made on the Blue River. The town called Breckinridge
was soon developed. The lure of gold attracted many brave pioneers to cross the these high mountains opening up gold mines, and building towns on the Western Slope.

UNORGANIZED TERRITORY

Bents Fort on the Arkansas River

Unorganized Territory

Unorganized Territory, Bents Fort on the Arkansas River

A folded letter written by E. W. Pomeroy on July 30th to his wife Maria at Lexington, Missouri. Pomeroy’s party was traveling with the Col. Kearny and the “Army of the West” on the way to Santa Fe. His group were camped eight miles east of Bents Fort on the Arkansas River. This letter is one of three known to have been carried by military express to Fort Leavenworth where it entered the mails postmarked Fort Leavenworth, Missouri on September 2, with manuscript “5” cent due rate.

Fort Leavenworth, Missouri ~ September 2, 1846 ~ Paid 5

Letter to Mrs. Maria Pomeroy, Care Robert Aull Esq. Lexington, Missouri Fort Leavenworth, Missouri ~ September 2, 1846 ~ Paid 5

Bents Fort on the Arkansas River

Bents Fort on the Arkansas River

31 July, 46

Dear Maria
Col. Kearny arrived two days since with all the Army. Joseph Hamelin is only a few miles behind us and Rich say is without letters for us. James spent the night at the Fort and has not yet returned Col. Owens has come in and reports James to be enjoying himself with the ladies (if they may so be called). The mail is about to close. The news from Santa Fe is that they place will probably surrender without a fight, nothing however is known upon which much reliance
can be placed.

Truly your affectionate,
E. W Pomeroy

Dateline: Near Bents Fort 31 July '46

A Letter to Maria Pomeroy

KANSAS TERRITORY

Early letter reporting the discovery of gold

Kansas Territory

Kansas Territory
Early letter reporting the discovery of gold

ElDorado, May 26, 1858

Dear Cousin Your letter arrived this afternoon, and as I felt like writing and thought I would see if you would answer it this time. It is real lonesome here. I suppose you have heard before this of the Gold being found near the Rocky-Mountains. One Train bound for that place has gone through here, and another expecteddaily, and others are getting groups from all parts of the territory I understand.

You ought to have been here to have see how “crazy” most all of the young men around here were to go., more especially those that couldn ‘t and then I suppose the fever would have carried you off as it did a number from here. It seems very contagious and after the arrival of the Train spreads rapidly. If you
come I suppose you will be for going to the Rocky-Mountains after Gold. Wont You?

I ain’t quite sure, that all of us here will catch the “Gold Fever” and go to the Mountains in the Spring.

Your affectionate Cousin, Augustus Stewart

Topeka, K. T. May 31, (1858) postmark and 3 cent dull red #26.

Letter to Mr. Lewis D. Seeley, Flint, Gennesee Co., Michigan, with round date Topeka, K. T. May 31, (1858) postmark and 3 cent dull red #26. Manuscript notation ElDorado, May 26, K. T.

KANSAS TERRITORY

Letter from Cherry Creek

Kansas Territory - Letter from Cherry Creek

Kansas Territory
Letter from Cherry Creek

Letters mailed during the early gold rush days was often hand carried east to Missouri River towns by travelers going home. It appears from early records that W. D. McLain, and his group arrived at Cherry Creek area around November 2, 1858. They started west from near Omaha going through the small towns of Florence, Fremont and Elk Horn City. He traveled with a small group of men that included the “Sternberger Boys”, and after arriving they settled at Sander’s Ranch for the winter.

The rest of his journey is unrecorded, however, Will does request that his friend direct all his mail to “Cherry Creek Quarter, Via Fort Laramie.”

Dear Dell, Enclosed you will find a letter to our folks which you can read and forward to them.
Sweeney and Rube Wood come up to Florence after me I saw them but they did not see me. I took
over the hill and went out the first. Then Pappillion stayed all night at the old Mrs. Kelley and
went on to Fremont and Elk Horn City in the morning with Sternberger boys.
Will have to close now, Give my love to Dr. Seymour and Sady and all my friends.
Truly yours, Will

Kansas Territory - Letter from Cherry Creek

Letter to J.D. Briggs, Omaha, N. T. (Nebraska Territory) with manuscript pen cancel on three cent red Nesbit entire. During the early days before mail service was established Will Smith operated a express mail service between Cherry Creek and Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Auraria, K. T.

Kansas Territory ~ 1859 - Gold Is Discovered - Auraria, K. T.

Kansas Territory ~ 1859
Gold Is Discovered
Auraria, K. T.

Auraria was an early settlement located at the junction of Cherry Creek and the Platte River first settled by the Russell party when they arrived from Auraria, Georgia in the fall of 1858.

Auraria, K. T. ~ July 12, 1859

Auraria, K. T. ~ July 12, 1859

Letter to John Moses, Delaware, Ohio, with manuscript Auraria, K. T. postmark July 12, with additional manuscript “59” cancel on 3 cent dull red #26. One of only four known.

Auraria, K. T. ~ August 2, 1859

Auraria, K. T. ~ August 2, 1859

Letter to Jas. F. Rusting, Esq., Williamsport, Pennsylvania forwarded to Trenton, New Jersey with typeset straightline postmark, and “Paid 3” with additional “Fwd 3” cent postage due.

NEBRASKA TERRITORY– 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Boulder, N. T.

Nebraska Territory - 1859 - Boulder

Nebraska Territory – 1859 – Boulder

The first settlement in Boulder County was as the mouth of Boulder Canyon known as Red Rocks by gold seekers in October 1858. A. A. Brookfield, organized the Boulder Town Company on February 10, 1859 and at that time Boulder City was located in the Nebraska Territory. The name was changed to Boulder when the post office opened on April 22, 1859. The town continued to grow, and on February 28, 1861 Congress passed a bill that brought Boulder into the newly created Colorado Territory.

Boulder, N. T. ~ October 3, 1860

Boulder, N. T. ~ October 3, 1860

Letter to Frederic P. Low, Esq. at Belvidere, Illinois, with manuscript cancellation with “Paid” notation. Mr. Low notes that he “Answered the letter on Jan. 18, 1861 “. One of only four recorded uses from the Nebraska Territory. Illustrated in Jarrett’s Colorado book.

Boulder City, Nebraska Territory

Boulder City, Nebraska Territory

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Fort Garland, N. M.

Kansas Territory – 1859 - Fort Garland, N. M.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Fort Garland, N. M.

Fort Garland was established in 1858 in the New Mexico Territory west of La Veta Pass on the edge of the Sangre de Cristo mountains. The post office opened February 25, 1862. The soldiers main duty was protection of local settlers from the marauding Ute and Apache Indian tribes in the valley.

Fort Garland, New Mexico Territory ~ September 14, 1860

Fort Garland, New Mexico Territory ~ September 14, 1860

A letter to Henry W. Dinman, Esq. Bristol, Rhode Island with two overlapping 3 cent #26. This is the earliest known of five reported letters from the Dinman correspondence. A docket notation originating at Fort Garland. Dr. Charles H. Alden was the surgeon at the Fort, and having no mail service letters were carried to Taos by Military Courier. Letter entered the mail franked with large single circle round date stamp at “Fernando de Taos, N. M.” on September 19th. Ex-Bauer Coli.

Incoming Letter from Pendleton, South Carolina to Lient. Ben F. Sloan via Santa Fe to Fort Garland, New Mexico

Incoming Letter from Pendleton, South Carolina to Lient. Ben F. Sloan via Santa Fe to Fort Garland, New Mexico

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Coraville, K. T.

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Coraville, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Coraville, K. T.

Coraville was not a town only the name of a Post Office established on March 22, 1859. It was June before mail service began. The office located in the Leavenworth & Pike’s Peak Express office on Blake Street in Denver City. The post office lacked a mail contract at this time, however a contract to Salt Lake City from Leavenworth City excluded Coraville and Denver City. Three mail shipments were carried by express before the agent realized the company was not being paid for the service.

Coraville, K. T. ~ June 8, 1859

Coraville, K. T. ~ June 8, 1859

Letter to R. M. Boyce, Wellsville, Columbia County, Ohio, with manuscript postmark tying 3 cent red Nesbit entire with receiving Leavenworth City date stamp on July 8, 1859. The journey took thirty days covering over 600 miles on the Republican River route. Ex-Beals, Alexander, Conland

The entire carries a dateless frank by the Leav’n City & Pikes Peak Express Co. The company operated between May 7 and July 19, 1859 carrying mail from Denver City to Leavenworth City. William Russell and John Jones formed the company in February, 1859, however it failed after making only seventeen trips.
The name was changed to Jones & Russell Pike’s Peak Express operating till February 23, 1860.

Stage Coach

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Golden City, K. T.

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Golden City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Golden City, K. T.

Golden City was established as a gold-rush town and quickly became a leading economic and political center of the region for a short time. By the end of 1860 the town had been popularly elected the seat of Jefferson County was considered the location of the provisional government of the Jefferson Territory. The town built right at the foothills was much closer to the mines then Auraria or Denver City. These events lasted a short time as political power shifted to Denver City.

Golden City, Kansas Territory ~ June 26, 1860

Golden City, Kansas Territory ~ June 26, 1860

Letter to Mrs. Julie Blankenship, Upper Alton, Madison County, Illinois, with manuscript postmark and 3 cent dull red #26 with heavy pen stroke cancel. The only known postmark from Golden City while in Kansas Territory. Illustrated in Jarrett’s Colorado book. Ex-Persson, Bauer Coli.

Golden City on Clear Creek - Circa 1860's

Golden City on Clear Creek ~ Circa 1860’s

KANSAS TERRITORY~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Hamilton, K. T.

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Hamilton, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Hamilton, K. T.

Hamilton was one of the three major placer mining towns in the South Park area along with Fairplay, and Tarryall. The gold placer mines were very rich during the first few years of discovery, however, in the 1870’s deep dredging equipment came into mining for the finer gold. The South Park area was home to the Ute Indians, however, they caused few problems for the mining communities. The post office opened July 26, 1860 and operated till 1881.

Hamilton, Kansas Territory ~ February 7, (1861) Unorganized Territory

Hamilton, Kansas Territory ~ February 7, (1861)
Unorganized Territory

Letter to L. S. Briggs at Golden City with single circle date stamp and matching “Paid” frank that was in use for a short period of time before Colorado became a territory. The Kansas Territory became a state on February 28, 1861. One of a few known examples. Ex-Baughman, Bauer Coli.

Early Days in Hamilton, Kansas Territory

Early Days in Hamilton, Kansas Territory

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Denver City, K. T.

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Denver City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Denver City, K. T.

Golden Gate, August 26, 1860

Sir I received your letter yesterday and was glad to hear that your home all well for you was good as dead when you left hear you was so badly scared but let that pass. We are all doing well. The mines is proving good as expected this summer thar is now over 100 quartz mills in the mines some of which a doing well. Prospector are fetching news of finding some good mines across the snow range.

Denver City, Kansas Territory - August 30, 1860

Denver City, Kansas Territory – August 30, 1860

Letter to John Ekenbarger, Decatur, Vanburen County Michigan, with rimless Tombstone (Type 1) postmark san-serif. The letter written by J. P. Gard reports from Golden Gate west of Denver City stating be is in the Jefferson Territory. He sends encouraging mining news to his friend John.

Yours truly, J.P. Gard

UTAH TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Breckinridge, U. T.

Utah Territory - 1859 - Breckinridge, U. T.

Utah Territory – 1859 – Breckinridge, U. T.

Gold was discovered in 1859 on the Blue River west of the Continental Divide in the Utah Territory. This was one of the first major discoveries on the western slope where the town of Breckinridge soon was built. The community was named for John C. Breckinridge then Vice President, and a man with Southern sympathies. When the Civil War broke out 1861 pro-Union citizens changed the name to Breckenridge changing “I” to “E”. The Northern population had little sympathy for the Confederacy.

Breckinridge, Utah Territory ~ September 13, 1860

Breckinridge, Utah Territory ~ September 13, 1860

Letter to J. J. Barclay, Esq., Fort Dodge, Webster Co., Iowa with manuscript cancel and dull red 3cent #26 with pen cancel. The post office opened January 18, 1860. This is the earliest of the two known postmarks from the Utah Territory in what is now Colorado. Ex-Persson, Bauer Coli.

Incoming Letter to Mr. Albert C. Townsend to Breckenridge P. 0., American Gulch, Rocky Mts. Utah Terr.

Incoming Letter to Mr. Albert C. Townsend to Breckenridge P. 0., American Gulch, Rocky Mts. Utah Terr.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Missouri City, K. T.

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Missouri City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Missouri City, K. T.

Missouri City located Gilpin County near Black Hawk and Mountain City was the location of several rich gold discoveries leading to development of hard-rock mining. The post office opened March 24, 1860 lasting a short time closing in January 1863. Mail was directed to Black Hawk. Mr. C. P. Garbet writes to his friend from a newly established mining camp being developed in the Fall River area on upper Clear Creek. He states that “Sheldon” will carry the letter to Missouri City for posting.

Glenaroe, City, Nov. 6, 1860
Lincoln District on Fall River

In accordance with my promise to take this opportunity to inform you of matters and things here .. Since you left in establishing the Boundaries of this district and framing a code of Law. I have been elected judge of the Miner’s Court. We have made some new discoveries of Lead which I think is good. I have also secured a water claim on Fall River. It is number 3 below the old recorder’s office, also found a vacant claim to take up. It is a 1000 dollar to us. We find it pretty hard here for us to get provisions.

I have a letter for Sheldon to take, and he will/eave tomorrow, our town is improving very fast 60 lots have been taken and building going up rapidly we will have fifty houses here before spring. I am sinking on the Summit Lode. They are taking out very rich quartz at the depth of 14 feet. Most of us are now working our claims. Weather is very mild yet.

Yours C.P.Garbet

Missouri City, K. T. ~ November 10, 1860

Missouri City, K. T. ~ November 10, 1860

Letter to Capt. William Lowell, Stillwater, Washington County, Minnesota, with manuscript postmark on 3 cent red Nesbitt entire with pen stroke cancel. One of only a few known covers from this small mining town. Illustrated in Jarrett’s Colorado book. Ex-Bauer Coli.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Tarryall, K. T.

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Tarryall, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Tarryall, K. T.

Tarryall Gulch was among the earliest gold discoveries in South Park region with over 5,000 people arriving over Kenosha Pass in early 1860. Letter by H. F. Dix written from Deadwood near Tarryall tells his parents about the remote life in the area.

Deadwood Oct. 26, 1860

Dear Parents and Brothers, We have U. S. Mail brought to this part of the world once a week coming on Tuesday departing Thursday. I am at the office when it opens. There are but a few remaining here most of having gone to the states. I expect after the snows fall there will be no coming here with teams, but we can get out on snowshoes. Their will probably be a large immigration here in the spring as there are plenty of fool.

Write soon. H. F. Dix, and direct my mail to Tarryall, South Park, Kansas Territory

Tarryall, Kansas Territory ~ November 1, 18601

Tarryall, Kansas Territory ~ November 1, 1860

Letter to J. H. Dix, Wilmington, Windham County, Vermont, with manuscript postmark and dull red 3 cent #26 with “X” pen stroke cancel. The earliest recorded of two known. Ex-Baughman, Bauer

Main Street Tarryall - 1860's

Main Street Tarryall – 1860’s

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Denver City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Denver City, K. T.

Denver City, Kansas Territory ~ November 12,1860

Denver City, Kansas Territory ~ November 12,1860

Letter to L. W. Weston Skowhegan, Maine with rimless Tombstone (Type 2) postmark, with small serif type style as a stamp less cover with “PAID” hands tamp covering 3 cent postage cost.

Incoming Mail To Denver City, Jefferson Territory ~ From Sidney, Iowa October 1, 1860

Incoming Mail
To Denver City, Jefferson Territory ~ From Sidney, Iowa October 1, 1860

A letter to Columbus Nuckolls from Frances Nuckolls with large black single circle Sidney, loa. postmark and dull red #26 with pen cancel. Manuscript “Per U. S. Mail” and “Via St. Joseph, Mo.” endorsements. Letter is datelined at Sidney on Sept. 25th 1860. ex Dale-Lichteinstein

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Kansas Territory - 1860 - Denver City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1860 – Denver City, K. T.

Denver City, Kansas Territory - November 7, 1860

Denver City, Kansas Territory – November 7, 1860

Letter to Miss M. E. Barns, Ripon, Fon Du Lac, County, Michigan, with rimless Tombstone (Type 2) postmark, and small serif style, and dull red #26 with large gutter margin and grid cancel. The letter enclosed was written at Missouri City in November 1860 by her brother M. Barnes.

Denver City, Kansas Territory - February 11, 1861 Unorganized Territory

Denver City, Kansas Territory – February 11, 1861
Unorganized Territory

A letter to Miss Jennie Huffman, Oswego, Indiana, with rimless Tombstone (Type 3) postmark in bold large type serif style, and 3 cent dull red #26 with grid cancel. This rare short time usage of the Denver City, K. T. postmark was only in service after Kansas became a state on January 29, 1861, and before the declaration of Colorado as a Territory on February 28, 1861.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Kansas Territory - 1861 - Denver City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1861 – Denver City, K. T.

Denver City, Kansas Territory ~ April15, 1861

Denver City, Kansas Territory ~ April15, 1861

A letter to James F. Rusling, Esq. Trenton, New Jersey, with double circle postmark, and only two examples known with “Paid” oval handstamp. Rusling notes that Steinberger wrote April 10th 1861, and “Thinks the Unions Gone! Not Much!” This postmark type only used for short period.

Denver City, Kansas Territory ~ July 2, 1861

Denver City, Kansas Territory ~ July 2, 1861

Letter to Col. J. B. Patterson Oquawka, Illinois with three 3 cent dull red #26 with 9 cent rate for over weight. Rocky Mountain News corner card with “Per C 0 C &P P. Express” manuscript notation. A very limited number of this type postmark known.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Missouri City, K. T.

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Missouri City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Missouri City, K. T.

Missouri City, Kas. ~ May 18,1861

Missouri City, Kas. ~ May 18,1861

Letter to Mrs. Sophia Colburn, Winterport, Maine with small circle round date postmark, and oval “Paid” stamp. This datestamp was soon replaced in June of 1861.

Mountain City, K. T.

Mountain City, K. T. ~ September 22, (1860)

Mountain City, K. T. ~ September 22, (1860)

Letter to Mr. Samuel A. Hart, Kensington, Connecticut, with manuscript cancel on 3 cent red Nesbitt with minor double impression. Post office opened January 17, 1860.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Gold Is Discovered

Kansas Territory - 1859 - Mountain City, K. T.

Kansas Territory – 1859 – Mountain City, K. T.

In early 1860, prospector’s had made many rich gold discoveries in Gilpin County. This led to a post offices being established at Mountain City and nearby towns of Missouri City and Nevada. It turned out in a few years time Gilpin county would be known as one of the richest mining areas in the territory. The Mountain City post office opened on January 17, 1860.

The earliest recorded postmark was used on September 10, 1861. The mining and business grew rapidly expanding the business district situated all along the  mountain side east to Black Hawk. One important business in the area was the Mountain City Brewery located near Black Hawk. The population was estimated at 800 in 1860, however in two years time 10,000 people were in the area.

Mountain City, K. T. - February 9, (1862)

Mountain City, K. T. – February 9, (1862)

Letter to G. ~ ,1\fjlls ‘Soutb Hadley, Massachusetts with large bold manuscript postmark with 3 cent #11 with pen stroke cancel. The postmark shows K. T. however, the date was after Kansas became a state, and before congress bad declared Colorado a new territory.

Mountain City Circa 1860's

Mountain City Circa 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Western Express Mail Routes

Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express

Leavenworth & Pike’s Peak Express

Leavenworth & Pike’s Peak Express

The company was formed in February 1859 by William Russell and John Jones. It operated from Denver City to Leavenworth City, Kansas Territory with the first trip arriving in Denver City on May 7, 1859, following the Platte Valley route. The company purchased 52 coaches making it possible to travel on daily basis with trip time averaging twelve days. After a short time the route was change to shortened the journey by using the more southerly Republican River route. In July of 1859 the company failed not being able to meet loans coming due from operating revenue. The number of covers recorded is eight east bound and eight west bound.

27 June 1859 Framington, Maine datestamp on 3 cent Nesbit entire via Leavenworth City

27 June 1859 Framington, Maine datestamp on 3 cent Nesbit entire via Leavenworth City with senders manuscript routing instruction “via Leavenworth & Pikes Peak Express” dated July 2″d handstamp to Mr. Thomas F. Pim Jr. at Denver City, Kansas Ty.

The Leavenworth and Pikes Peak Express Company Office, Denver City, K. T.

The Leavenworth and Pikes Peak Express Company Office, Denver City, K. T.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Western Express Mail Routes

Jones & Russell Pike's Peak Express

Jones & Russell Pike’s Peak Express

Jones & Russell Pike’s Peak Express

Denver City September 15,1859 to Leavenworth City, K. T. September 24,1859

Denver City September 15,1859 to Leavenworth City, K. T. September 24,1859

Letter to Mr. Cornelius P. Berry, Bushville, Schuyler County, Illinois entering the mail on September 24, 1859 postmarked at Leavenworth City, K. T. on 3 cent red Nesbitt entire.

A stage coach was designed as a covered wagon to carry passengers and parcels over long distances. Drawn by four or six horses on a regular schedule. The term “stage” originally referred to the distance between stations on a route, however, in time the vehicle became known as a stage coach. Fresh horses were changed at each station on the way, and the coaches would make brief stops allowing passengers some rest and poor food. If a passenger got off to rest they might be left in that place till the next stage arrived that had an available seat.

A Stage Coach Going Down The Trail

A Stage Coach Going Down The Trail

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Western Express Mail Routes

Jones & Russell Pike's Peak Express

Jones & Russell Pike’s Peak Express

Jones & Russell Pike’s Peak Express

The company offered mail express service between mountain mining towns to Denver and onward to Leavenworth City. The company reorganized by William Russell and John Jones in the summer of 1859 after their recent failure of the Leavenworth & Pike’s Peak Express Co. The new company traveled over the Republican River route. In October 1859 Alexander Majors and William Waddell entered into the reorganization of the partnership bringing in much needed additional capital. The earliest reported use is July 25, 1859. The last trip from Denver was on February 23, 1860.

Manuscript

Manuscript “FreeR. B. Bradford” frank dated at Denver City on Nov. 11, 1859 toW. B. Waddell at Leavenworth City, K. T. The letter did not require postage as Bradford was the company agent in Denver City. The earliest use reported, and one of only three known Bradford frank’s.

Jones & Russell Pike's Peak Express Route

Jones & Russell Pike’s Peak Express Route

COLORADO TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

“Pony Express” Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express

The Pony Express is one of America’s most famous pioneering efforts in mail delivery. Started by William Russell his partners, Alexander Major and William Waddell they began a fast mail service over the Plains from Missouri to California. The first trip began on April 3, 1860 taking ten days.

COC & PP Express, St. Joseph, Mo., September 13, 1860 ~ Saint Joseph, Mo., September 14,1860

COC & PP Express, St. Joseph, Mo., September 13, 1860 ~ Saint Joseph, Mo., September 14,1860

Letter to Hon. A. B. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C., with 10 cent green #35 and franked at St. Joseph, Mo. by Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express

New York, November 18, 1861 ~ To Messr's White & Wilson, San Francisco, California

New York, November 18, 1861 ~ To Messr’s White & Wilson, San Francisco, California

Pony Express service ended on October 31 at Saint Joseph. “This letter was just to late.”

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1859

Western Pony Express Mail Route

Kansas Territory ~ 1859 - Western Pony Express Mail Route

Pony Express Route via Julesburg, Kansas Territory

Pony Express Route via Julesburg, Kansas Territory

22

22nd September 1860 San Francisco to North Haverstraw, New York prepaid $2.50

Pony Express charge for one-quarter ounce. pencil note Via Pony on eastbound trip No. 33.

Arriving at St. Joseph, Missouri on October 3rd entering U. S. Mail on Yd October 1860 at St Joseph carried by government mails to P. Van Valer, Esq. North Haverstraw, New York.

The only reported example carried on this trip.

Pony Express Ten Days to San Francisco Article

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Central Overland California & Pike's Peak Express Company

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company

The company operated in 1860 and 1861 between Denver City and St. Joseph, Missouri and Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. The company known as the “C.O.C.&P.P.” formed in February 1860 by Russell, Majors and Waddell after failure of the Jones and Russell Express Company in early 1860. They added new capital to buy equipment, expanded stage stations and routes making the company the largest express carrier in the territory at this time.

Pacific City, loa November 12, - St. Joseph, Mo November 15,186

Pacific City, loa November 12, – St. Joseph, Mo November 15,1860

I:J’Ctter to C. Nuckolls Denver City, Kansas with forward to Mountain City with single circle Pacific City, Iowwtying>3 cent dull red #26. Routing endorsement “Via C 0 C and P P Express St Joseph, Mo. Collect 15 cts. ex Dale-Lichtienstein

Letter from Francis sister of Columbus Nuckolls two weeks after previous letter dated October 1, 1860.

Post Master's notation added at Denver City

Central Overland Staf!e Coach

Central Overland Stage Coach

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Central Overland California & Pike's Peak Express Company

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company

The company known as the “C.O.C&P.P” formed in February 1860 by three of the former owners of the bankrupt Jones & Russell Express Company. The three main partners, Russell, Majors and Waddell, were the majority stock holders. They added new capital to buy equipment, expanded stage station s and routes making the company the largest express carrier in the territory.

Denver City, K. T. November 20 ~ St. Joseph, Mo. November 26, (1860)

Denver City, K. T. November 20 ~ St. Joseph, Mo. November 26, (1860)

Letter to Mrs. P. C. Hale, Milwaukee Wisconsin. Sent from Denver City with oval express date stamp received November 26 at St. Joseph entering the mail with double circle postmark at St. Joseph, Mo. on Nov. 27, with 3 cent red Nesbitt entire and additional3 cent dull red #26 added with grid cancels. The obverse bears an undated Denver City express strike. Ex-Barkhausen

In May of 1860 the company acquired the Chorpenning mail contract for service from Salt Lake to California. Russell, Majors and Waddell then developed an idea for the Pony Express a new fast mail service. It would carry special mail running from St. Joseph to San Francisco covering this long, and often dangerous distance in 10 to 14 days.

Things went well for a time, but soon heavy losses set in, and in the end the Pony Express became obsolete as the Transcontinental Telegraph was completed. Business conditions were changing rapidly, and the company ran out of cash in early 1862. Some employees referred to C.O.C.& P.P. Express as “Clean Out of Cash and Poor Pay” On March 21, 1862 the company went into bankruptcy being sold at public auction to Ben Holladay for the sum of$100,000 dollars at Kansas City, Missouri.

Central Overland California & Pike's Peak Express Company Handstamp

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company Handstamp

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Central Overland California & Pike's Peak Express Company

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company

St. Joseph, Mo. December 22 ~ Pacific City Iowa December 13, 1860

St. Joseph, Mo. December 22 ~ Pacific City Iowa December 13, 1860

Letter to C. Nuckolls with Nuckolls and Hawke, Mountain City, Kansas Territory with green oval express datestamp and large black Pacific City, Ioa. postmark with straightline black “Paid” handstamp tying 3 cent #26. Cover endorsed by send “Care C.OC&P. P. Express, St. Joseph”

Hinckley Co. Express July 11, 1860 to Denver City, K. T.

Hinckley Co. Express July 11, 1860 to Denver City, K. T.
Denver City K. T. July 12, 1860 ~ Saint Joseph, Mo. July 19, 1860

Letter to Mrs. J. W. Millis White Pigeon, Michigan carried to Denver City by Hinckley Express forwarded by COC&PP Express entering the mail with green postmark at St. Joseph with 3 cent #26.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Central Overland California & Pike's Peak Express Company

Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express Company

The company operated in 1860 and 1861 between Denver City and St. Joseph, Missouri and Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. The company known as the “C.O.C&P.P” formed in February 1860 by Russell, Majors and Waddell after failure of the Jones and Russell Express Company in early 1860. The added new capital to buy equipment, expanded stage station s and routes making the company the largest express carrier in the territory.

Denver City, K. T. December 20 - St. Joseph, Mo. December 29, 1860

Denver City, K. T. December 20 – St. Joseph, Mo. December 29, 1860

Letter to Col. J. B. Patterson, Ed. Spectator, Oquawka, Illinois with oval express date stamp tied to magenta express label added at Denver. The label notes “The Only Through Express, Direct Your Letters Care C. 0. C.&PP Express, St. Joseph, Mo. or Leavenworth, K. T.” Entering the mail at St. Joseph with double postmarks on 3 cent Nesbitt with 3 cent dull red #26 added with grid cancels. Obverse error dated Nov. 20 Denver City, K. T. St. Joseph Dec 28 making. ex-Lichtenstein-Dale

Central Overland California & Pike's Peak Express Company Handstamps

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Hinckley & Company Express Mail

Hinckley & Company Express Mail

Denver City, K. T. October 29, 1860

Denver City, K. T. October 29, 1860

Letter to Mrs. R. M. Pease, Superior, Douglas County, Wisconsin on 3 cent red Nesbitt brown entire. Early example of the Hinckley frank “Fast Run via Denver” postmarked at Saint Joseph.

Denver City, K. T. October 29, 1860 ~ St. Joseph January 9, 1861

Denver City, K. T. October 29, 1860 ~ St. Joseph January 9, 1861

Letter to Mrs. Freeman B. Crocker, Osterville, Mass. on 3 cent red Nesbitt on brown entire. Printed directive “Care of Hinkley & Co.’s Express St. Joe Mo.

KANSAS TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Hinckley & Company Express Mail

Hinckley & Company Express Mail

Denver City, K. T. July 30, 1860 - Forwarded to California Gulch, Summit County

Denver City, K. T. July 30, 1860 – Forwarded to California Gulch, Summit County

Letter to C. C. Carpenter, Esq. Denver City, K. T. on 10 cent green Nesbitt on white entire. Sent from Georgetown, California on June 22″d via Overland ex Vogel

Denver City, K. T. September 13, 1860 - Saint Joseph September20 1860

Denver City, K. T. September 13, 1860 – Saint Joseph September20 1860

Letter to Mr. Anders,Peterson, Scandia P. 0., Carver County Minnesota with 3 cent red Nesbitt on white entire. Early example of Hincklev printed frank with “Paid St. Joseph. Missouri” grid cancel.

COLORADO TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Wells Fargo Company

Wells Fargo Company

From late 1866 until 1872 the company operated two main lines of transport one line serving major gold mining towns of Black Hawk to Georgetown west of Denver. The Wells Fargo office in Denver provided freight and mail service to Wyoming and Kansas. In time the expansion of the Union Pacific eliminated the need for stage coach service.

Wells Fargo Co.· Denver City. Col. May 17,1867

Wells Fargo Co.· Denver City. Col. May 17,1867

Letter to Mrs. A. L. Kerr Box 408, Saint Joseph, Missouri. with blue double oval circle handstamp on remaindered printed frank of the Holladay Overland Express Company. On three cent 1864 pink entire, with black single circle May 22, Salina, Kansas postmark and tied target cancel.

Wells Fargo carried mail under government contract traveling by stagecoach over the Smoky Hill Route linking up with the Union Pacific Eastern Division terminus at Salina Kansas. Only four known covers with this example being the earliest known use to as late as February 1872.

Route Map

COLORADO TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Wells Fargo Express Overland Express Denver, Colorado

Wells Fargo Express
Overland Express
Denver, Colorado

Letter to Mr. James Clark, Nevada City Colorado Territory Value $25.00 Blue Label Forwarded by Wells, Fargo & Co. Overland Express From Denver, Col.

Wells Fargo and Co. Overland Express

Wells Fargo and Co.
Overland Express

The company started service in Colorado late in 1866 till 1869 with two major routes one serving gold mountain mining towns west of Denver via Central City on west to Georgetown.

American Express Co. 8 Court Street, Boston Mass. With Orange Label Forwarded By

COLORADO TERRITORY ~ 1860’s

Western Express Mail Routes

Holladay Overland Mail and Express

Holladay Overland Mail and Express

Holladay Overland Mail and Express

On March 21, 1862 Ben Holladay purchased the assets of the bankrupt Central Overland California & Pike’s Peak Express. This opportunity expanded his companies express, and freight business east through Kansas into Missouri. He was well known as “King” of the express business. His large “Empire” came to end because of over expansion leading to financial troubles forcing him to sell the company to Wells Fargo in 1866.

Denver, Col. February 20, (1866)

Denver, Col. February 20, (1866)

Letter to Mrs. J. M. Knight, Independence, Missouri with black company frank on 3 cent pink entire. Cover: shows faint strike “Holladay O M & E” and is one of two known strikes. The single circle-blue Denver Col. postmark used only seven days after the name change from Denver City. ex Barkhausen

Overland Mail Routes

Overland Mail Routes

COLORADO ~ 1870 ~ 1880

Western Express Mail Routes

Southern Overland Mail Express Company

Southern Overland Mail Express Company

Kansas City, Missouri ~ December 31, 1880

Kansas City, Missouri ~ December 31, 1880

Letter to Miss Jennie Jones, Pierpont Manor, New York, with “Overland U. S. Mail” with tied 3 cent banknote and quartered cork cancel. Obverse New York Rec’d January 2, 1880. ex Risvold

Pueblo Colorado ~ July 14, (1878)

Pueblo Colorado ~ July 14, (1878)

Letter to Hon Adair Wilson Del Norte, Colorado with large stagecoach and mountain scene corner card. Black single circle postmark with green 3 cent banknote tied by cork cancel.

COLORADO ~ 1870 ~ 1880

Western Express Mail Routes

Southern Overland Mail Express Company

Southern Overland Mail Express Company

Del Norte, Colo. November 13, 1870's

Del Norte, Colo. November 13, 1870’s

Letter to C. C. Hemenway, Theological Sem. Auburn, New York Carried by Southern Overland Mail and Express, with stage coach design, and 1 cent ultramarine with blue Del Norte cancel.

Leadville, Colo. February 18, 1884 ~ Rec'd San F:rancisco February 23, 1884

Leadville, Colo. February 18, 1884 ~ Rec’d San F:rancisco February 23, 1884

Letter to Miss M. Duraind, 2128 Bush near Filmore St. San Francisco, California. illustrated four horse stage coach route from Leadville south to Aspen, with 2 cent red brown tied by black circle cancel.

COLORADO ~ 1870 ~ 1880

Western Express Mail Routes

Colorado Stage & Express Co.

Colorado Stage & Express Co.

The Colorado Stage and Express Company began operation in February 1877 hauling freight, mail and passengers between Canon City, Silver Cliff and Rosita. This was valuable service to all the towns and silver mining operations in the Wet Mountain during the 1880’s.

Colorado Stage & Express Route

Colorado Stage & Express Route

The Colorado Stage and Express Company began operation in February 1877 hauling freight, mail and passengers between Canon City, Silver Cliff and Rosita. This was valuable service to all the towns and silver mining operations in the Wet Mountain during the 1880’s.

Rosita, Colorado - November 14, 1880

Rosita, Colorado – November 14, 1880

Letter to Benjamin J. Roberts Jr. North Cluli, Monroe County, New York with black octagon date stamp, 3 cent green Banknote with target cancel. A fully illustrated bluish green advertising cover featuring a six horse team drawing Concorde Coach Ex-Engert

COLORADO ~ 1870 ~ 1880

Western Express Mail Routes

Crested Butte and Aspen Stage Co.

Crested Butte and Aspen Stage Co.

Crested Butte and Aspen Stage Co.

C. C. Pollard, Manager

Crested Butte – March 2, 1886

Crested Butte - March 2, 1886

Cr~st~d Butte, Colorado April29, 1886 ~ Rec'd Oquawka, Illinois May 3, 1886

Crested Butte, Colorado April29, 1886 ~ Rec’d Oquawka, Illinois May 3, 1886

Letter to Mrs. Annie Smith, Rozella, Illinois with black rimless postmark and 2 cent red-brown with target cancel. A large illustrated six-horse stagecoach corner card of the Crested Butte and Aspen Stage Co., with C. C. Pollard Manager at the Crested Butte Office. ex Frajola, Meroni